1 edition of Diffusion in solids and liquids mass diffusion found in the catalog.
Diffusion in solids and liquids mass diffusion
International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids (2nd 2006 Aveiro, Portugal)
|Statement||edited by Andreas Öchsner, José Grácio|
|Series||Diffusion and defect data -- v. 258-260|
|Contributions||Öchsner, Andreas, Grácio, José|
|LC Classifications||QC185 .I585 2006|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xvi, 618 p. :|
|Number of Pages||618|
|LC Control Number||2007276953|
Diffusion occurs in gases, liquids and solids. It holds true if we neglect the particle inertia, which is allowed for high enough t's. When a diffusion process does not follow Fick's laws which happens in cases of diffusion through porous media and diffusion of swelling penetrants, among others  it is referred to as non-Fickian. However, on the whole, the molecules of the substance migrate at a velocity much lower than the mean velocity of the molecular free motion. TEMP Magnitude of the applied temperature field. Students and researchers of material science will find this book extremely useful.
It might thus be expressed in the unit m. Ultimately, at low temperatures, where new defects are not spontaneously produced unlike at high temperaturesdiffusion is reduced by migration of defects to sinks. This is because the particles in liquids move slowly as compared to the particles in gases. Under certain conditions, this may enhance the total flow of a diffusing component. The driving force for the one-dimensional diffusion is the quantity, which for ideal mixtures is the concentration gradient.
It proceeds at a maximum rate in gases, at a lower rate in liquids, and at a still lower rate in solids—these differences being accounted for by the nature of thermal motion in these media. However, under these conditions, mass transfer may also be proportional to the concentration gradient. TEMP Magnitude of the applied temperature field. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. It postulates that the flux goes from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, with a magnitude that is proportional to the concentration gradient spatial derivativeor in simplistic terms the concept that a solute will move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration across a concentration gradient.
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It might thus be expressed in the unit m. Specifying time-dependent concentration fluxes The magnitude of a concentrated or a distributed concentration flux can be controlled by referring to an amplitude curve see Amplitude Curves.
The random movement of fluid molecules makes them spread out until a boundary stops them. The same occurs as molecule mass and size increase. See also non-diagonal coupled transport processes Onsager relationship. Since the equilibrium surface gas concentration increases with an increase in partial pressure of the adsorbed species, a surface concentration gradient of a diffusing substance appears in the surface layer of a pore.
Molecule reflection from the walls is normally diffuse, i. Free shipping for individuals worldwide Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
So far, the above discussion has focused on the so-called pure concentration diffusion proceeding under the effect of concentration gradient or chemical potential in a medium unaffected by external factors. The corresponding diffusion coefficients strongly depend on concentration, temperature, pressure and density.
Diffusion occurs in gases, liquids and solids. In a transition region in which both molecular and Knudsen diffusions are essential, an overall effective diffusion coefficient is recommended The above refers only to a single-component diffusion.
Therefore, intensive research is being aimed at developing water purification processes that are based upon using renewable energy, such as solar energy, rather than energy generated using fossil fuels.
Alternatively, the temperature field can be obtained from a previous heat transfer analysis. Large-scale eddies may include small-scale ones. When calculating the fluctuations with a perturbative approach, the zero order approximation is Fick's law.
The rate of diffusion of a gas, however, depends on its density. This is because the particles in liquids move slowly as compared to the particles in gases. Migration of an atom into a defect normally produces a new defect so that further diffusion can occur.
The most promising photocatalyst is titanium dioxide, TiO2, and its solid solutions. Here, indices i and j are related to the various components and not to the space coordinates. Conversely, elevation of temperature causes an increase in the free-path length, a decrease in the number of collisions, and growth of free-motion velocity.
The research on TiO2 photocatalysis is multidisciplinary, and progress in this area requires the application of concepts of catalysis and photocatalysis as well as concepts of solid-state chemistry.
However, it is known that temperature gradient gives rise to a thermal diffusion, pressure gradient to pressure diffusion, an electrical field to electrical diffusion of charged particles, and so on.
The roles Knudsen and molecular diffusions perform are commensurable within a certain range of pore sizes and gas pressures. Brownian diffusion If fine particles no more than a few microns in size are placed in a stationary gas or liquid at rest, they randomly migrate in the bulk, the motion not decaying and being independent of the medium chemical properties.
It proceeds at a maximum rate in gases, at a lower rate in liquids, and at a still lower rate in solids—these differences being accounted for by the nature of thermal motion in these media.
In this theoretical framework, diffusion is due to fluctuations whose dimensions range from the molecular scale to the macroscopic scale. This is an example of diffusion of gases into a liquid. Diffusion is a passive process, therefore does not require energy as it occurs down a concentration gradient.• Solids versus fluids.
Heat Transfer starts with, and focuses on, heat diffusion in solids, which have higher thermal conductivities than fluids, the latter being considered globally through empirical convective coefficients, whereas Mass Transfer focuses on gases and. Diffusion usually happens in a solution in gas or in a liquid.
It is possible to see diffusion happening when two liquids are mixed in a transparent container. It describes the constant movement of particles in all liquids and gases.
These particles move in all directions bumping into each other. Diffusion can only work with gases and liquids. Keywords: Chemical engineering, molecular motion-diffusion, velocities and fluxes of mass transfer, average mixture velocities, Fick’s law of diffusion, binary diffusion coefficient, equivalent forms of Fick’s law of diffusion, diffusion in gases, liquids and polymers, generalized mass balances for multicomponent and binary mixtures, diffusion.
Diffusivity, mass diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion).
Diffusivity is encountered in Fick's law and numerous other equations of physical chemistry.
The diffusivity is generally prescribed for a given pair of species and. Mass diffusivity explained. Diffusivity, mass diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is a proportionality constant between the molar flux due to molecular diffusion and the gradient in the concentration of the species (or the driving force for diffusion).
Diffusivity is encountered in Fick's law and numerous other equations of physical chemistry. The diffusivity is generally prescribed for a.
from the above considerations that this diffusion constant (D) reflects the mobility of the diffusing species in the given environment and accordingly assumes larger values in gases, smaller ones in liquids, and extremely small ones in solids.!
C! x distance concentration! C/! x "!dC/dx.